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CYKLONE®

How paint is made and what's in it?

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Professional Builder Magazine Feb 2017 Edition Amazing Cyklone Review

How paint is made and what's in it?

Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a term used to describe a number of substances that consist of a pigment suspended in a liquid or paste vehicle such as oil or water. With a brush, a roller, or a spray gun, paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is applied in a thin coat to various surfaces such as wood, metal, or stone. Although its primary purpose is to protect the surface to which it is applied, paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, also provides decoration.

Samples of the first known paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, made between 20,000 and 25,000 years ago, survive in caves in France and Spain. Primitive paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, tended to depict humans and animals, and diagrams have also been found. Early artists relied on easily available natural substances to make paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, such as natural earth pigments, charcoal, berry juice, lard, blood, and milkweed sap. Later, the ancient Chinese, Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans used more sophisticated materials to produce paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, for limited decoration, such as paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, walls. Oils were used as varnishes, and pigments such as yellow and red ochres, chalk, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sulphide yellow, and malachite green were mixed with binders such as gum Arabic, lime, egg albumen, and beeswax.

Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was first used as a protective coating by the Egyptians and Hebrews, who applied pitches and balsams to the exposed wood of their ships. During the Middle Ages, some inland wood also received protective coatings of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, but due to the scarcity of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, this practice was generally limited to store fronts and signs. Around the same time, artists began to boil resin with oil to obtain highly miscible (mixable) paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and artists of the fifteenth century were the first to add drying oils to paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, thereby hastening evaporation. They also adopted a new solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, linseed oil, which remained the most commonly used solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® until synthetics replaced it during the twentieth century.

In Boston around 1700, Thomas Child built the earliest American paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, mill, a granite trough within which a 1.6 foot (.5 meter) granite ball rolled, grinding the pigment. The first paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, patent was issued for a product that improved whitewash, a water-slaked lime often used during the early days of the United States. In 1865 D. P. Flinn obtained a patent for a water-based paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, which also contained zinc oxide, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide, resin, milk, and linseed oil. The first commercial paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, mills replaced Child's granite ball with a buhrstone wheel, but these mills continued the practice of grinding only pigment (individual customers would then blend it with a vehicle at home). It wasn't until 1867 that manufacturers began mixing the vehicle and the pigment for consumers.

The twentieth century has seen the most changes in paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, composition and manufacture. Today, synthetic pigments and stabilizers are commonly used to mass produce uniform batches of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, New synthetic vehicles developed from Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,s such as polyurethane and styrene-butadene emerged during the 1940s. Alkyd resins were synthesized, and they have dominated production since. Before 1930, pigment was ground with stone mills, and these were later replaced by steel balls. Today, sand mills and high-speed dispersion mixers are used to grind easily dispersible pigments.

Perhaps the greatest paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,-related advancement has been its proliferation. While some wooden houses, stores, bridges, and signs were paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, as early as the eighteenth century, it wasn't until recently that mass production rendered a wide variety of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, universally indispensable. Today, paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are used for interior and exterior house paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, boats, automobiles, planes, appliances, furniture, and many other places where protection and appeal are desired.
A paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is composed of pigments, solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, resins, and various additives. The pigments give the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, colour; solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® make it easier to apply; resins help it dry; and additives serve as everything from fillers to anti-fungicidal agents. Hundreds of different pigments, both natural and synthetic, exist. The basic white pigment is titanium dioxide, selected for its excellent concealing properties, and black pigment is commonly made from carbon black. Other pigments used to make paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, include iron oxide and cadmium sulphide for reds, metallic salts for yellows and oranges, and iron blue and chrome yellows for blues and greens.

Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® are various low viscosity, volatile liquids. They include petroleum mineral spirits and aromatic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® such as benzol, alcohols, esters, ketones, and acetone. The natural resins most commonly used are linseed, coconut, and soybean oil, while alkyds, acrylics, epoxies, and polyurethanes number among the most popular synthetic resins. Additives serve many purposes. Some, like calcium carbonate and aluminium silicate, are simply fillers that give the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, body and substance without changing its properties. Other additives produce certain desired characteristics in paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, such as the thixotropic agents that give paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, its smooth texture, driers, anti-settling agents, anti-skinning agents, de-foamers, and a host of others that enable paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to cover well and last long.

Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is generally custom-made to fit the needs of industrial customers. For example, one might be especially interested in a fast-drying paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, while another might desire a paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, that supplies good coverage over a long lifetime. Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, intended for the consumer can also be custom-made. Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, manufacturers provide such a wide range of colour's that it is impossible to keep large quantities of each on hand. To meet a request for "aquamarine," "canary yellow," or "maroon," the manufacturer will select a base that is appropriate for the deepness of colour required. (Pastel paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, bases will have high amounts of titanium dioxide, the white pigment, while darker tones will have less.) Then, according to a predetermined formula, the manufacturer can introduce various pigments from calibrated cylinders to obtain the proper colour.

Making the paste
1 Pigment manufacturers send bags of fine grain pigments to paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, plants. There, the pigment is premixed with resin (a wetting agent that assists in moistening the pigment), one or more solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and additives to form a paste.
Dispersing the pigment
2 The paste mixture for most industrial and some consumer paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® is now routed into a sand mill, a large cylinder that agitates tiny particles of sand or silica to grind the pigment particles, making them smaller and dispersing them throughout the mixture. The mixture is then filtered to remove the sand particles.
3 Instead of being processed in sand mills, up to 90 percent of the water-based latex paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, designed for use by individual homeowners are instead processed in a high-speed dispersion tank. There, the premixed paste is subjected to high-speed agitation by a circular, toothed blade attached to a rotating shaft. This process blends the pigment into the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®.
Thinning the paste
4 Whether created by a sand mill or a dispersion tank, the paste must now be thinned to produce the final product. Transferred to large kettles, it is agitated with the proper amount of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® for the type of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, desired.
Canning the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,
5 The finished paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, product is then pumped into the canning room. For the standard 8 pint (3.78 litre) paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, can available to consumers, empty cans are first rolled horizontally onto labels, then set upright so that the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, can be pumped into them. A machine places lids onto the filled cans, and a second machine presses on the lids to seal them. From wire that is fed into it from coils, a bailometer cuts and shapes the handles before hooking them into holes pre-cut in the cans. A certain number of cans (usually four) are then boxed and stacked before being sent to the warehouse.
Quality Control
Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, manufacturers utilize an extensive array of quality control measures. The ingredients and the manufacturing process undergo stringent tests, and the finished product is checked to insure that it is of high quality. A finished paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is inspected for its density, fineness of grind, dispersion, and viscosity. Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is then applied to a surface and studied for bleed resistance, rate of drying, and texture.

In terms of the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, aesthetic components, colour is checked by an experienced observer and by spectral analysis to see if it matches a standard desired colour. Resistance of the colour to fading caused by the elements is determined by exposing a portion of a paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, surface to an arc light and comparing the amount of fading to a paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, surface that was not so exposed. The paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hiding power is measured by paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, it over a black surface and a white surface. The ratio of coverage on the black surface to coverage on the white surface is then determined, with .98 being high-quality paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, Gloss is measured by determining the amount of reflected light given off a paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, surface.

Tests to measure the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, more functional qualities include one for mar resistance, which entails scratching or abrading a dried coat of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. Adhesion is tested by making a crosshatch, calibrated to .07 inch (2 millimetres), on a dried paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, surface. A piece of tape is applied to the crosshatch, then pulled off; good paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, will remain on the surface. Scrub ability is tested by a machine that rubs a soapy brush over the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, surface. A system also exists to rate settling. An excellent paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, can sit for six months with no settling and rate a ten. Poor paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, however, will settle into an immiscible lump of pigment on the bottom of the can and rate a zero. Weathering is tested by exposing the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to outdoor conditions. Artificial weathering exposes a paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, surface to sun, water, extreme temperature, humidity, or sulfuric gases. Fire retardency is checked by burning the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and determining its weight loss. If the amount lost is more than 10 percent, the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is not considered fire-resistant.
A recent regulation (California Rule 66) concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affects the paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, industry, especially manufacturers of industrial oil-based paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. It is estimated that all coatings, including stains and varnishes, are responsible for 1.8 percent of the 2.3 million metric tons of VOCs released per year. The new regulation permits each litre of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to contain no more than 250 grams (8.75 ounces) of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. Paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, manufacturers can replace the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® with pigment, fillers, or other solids inherent to the basic paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, formula. This method produces thicker paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, that are harder to apply, and it is not yet known if such paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are long lasting. Other solutions include using paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, powder coatings that use no solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, applying paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in closed systems from which VOCs can be retrieved, using water as a solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, or using acrylics that dry under ultraviolet light or heat. A consumer with some unused paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, on hand can return it to the point of purchase for proper treatment.

A large paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, manufacturer will have an in-house wastewater treatment facility that treats all liquids generated on-site, even storm water run-off. The facility is monitored 24 hours a day, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does a periodic records and systems check of all paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, facilities. The liquid portion of the waste is treated on-site to the standards of the local publicly owned wastewater treatment facility; it can be used to make low-quality paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, Latex sludge can be retrieved and used as fillers in other industrial products. Waste solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® can be recovered and used as fuels for other industries. A clean paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, container can be reused or sent to the local landfill.

Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (ar-sa-nik is a chemical element with the symbol As, atomic number 33 and relative atomic mass 74.92. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, occurs in many minerals, usually in conjunction with sulphur and metals, and also as a pure elemental crystal. It was first documented by Albertus Magnus in 1250. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a metalloid. It can exist in various allotropes, although only the grey form has important use in industry.

The main use of metallic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is for strengthening alloys of copper and especially lead (for example, in car batteries). Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a common n-type dopant in semiconductor electronic devices, and the optoelectronic compound gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor in use after doped silicon. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and its compounds, especially the trioxide, are used in the production of pesticides (treated wood products), herbicides, and insecticides. These applications are declining, however.

Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is notoriously poisonous to multicellular life, and a few species of bacteria are able to use arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds as respiratory metabolites. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, contamination of groundwater is a problem that affects millions of people across the world.
The three most common allotropes are metallic grey, yellow and black arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, with grey being the most common. Grey arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (a-As, space group R3m No. 166) adopts a double-layered structure consisting of many interlocked ruffled six-membered rings. Because of weak bonding between the layers, grey arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is brittle and has a relatively low Mohs hardness of 3.5. Nearest and next-nearest neighbours form a distorted octahedral complex, with the three atoms in the same double-layer being slightly closer than the three atoms in the next. This relatively close packing leads to a high density of 5.73 g/cm3. Grey arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a semimetal, but becomes a semiconductor with a bandgap of 1.2-1.4 eV if amorphized. Yellow arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is soft and waxy, and somewhat similar to tetraphosphorus (P4). Both have four atoms arranged in a tetrahedral structure in which each atom is bound to each of the other three atoms by a single bond. This unstable allotrope, being molecular, is the most volatile, least dense and most toxic. Solid yellow arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is produced by rapid cooling of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, vapour, As4. It is rapidly transformed into the grey arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, by light. The yellow form has a density of 1.97 g/cm3. Black arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is similar in structure to red phosphorus.
Isotopes of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,
Naturally occurring arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is composed of one stable isotope, 75As. As of 2003, at least 33 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 60 to 92. The most stable of these is 73As with a half-life of 80.3 days. Isotopes that are lighter than the stable 75As tend to decay by β+ decay, and those that are heavier tend to decay by β- decay, with some exceptions.
At least 10 nuclear isomers have been described, ranging in atomic mass from 66 to 84. The most stable of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, isomers is 68mAs with a half-life of 111 seconds.
When heated in air, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, oxidizes to arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trioxide; the fumes from this reaction have an odour resembling garlic. This odour can be detected on striking arsenide minerals such as arsenopyrite with a hammer. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (and some arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds) sublimes upon heating at atmospheric pressure, converting directly to a gaseous form without an intervening liquid state at 887 K (614 °C). The triple point is 3.63 MPa and 1,090 K (820 °C). Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, makes arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, acid with concentrated nitric acid, arsenious acid with dilute nitric acid, and arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trioxide with concentrated sulfuric acid.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds resemble in some respects those of phosphorus, which occupies the same group (column) of the periodic table. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is less commonly observed in the pentavalent state, however. The most common oxidation states for arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are: -3 in the arsenides, such as alloy-like intermetallic compounds; and +3 in the arsenites, arsenates(III), and most organoarsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, also bonds readily to itself as seen in the square As3-
4 ions in the mineral skutterudite. In the +3 oxidation state, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is typically pyramidal, owing to the influence of the lone pair of electrons.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, forms colourless, odourless, crystalline oxides As2O3 ("white arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,") and As2O5, which are hygroscopic and readily soluble in water to form acidic solutions. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®(V) acid is a weak acid. Its salts are called arsenates, which is the basis of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, contamination of groundwater, a problem that affects many people. Man-made arsenates include Paris Green (copper (II) acetoarsenite), calcium arsenate, and lead hydrogen arsenate. The latter three have been used as agricultural insecticides and poisons.
The protonation steps between the arsenate and arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, acid are similar to those between phosphate and phosphoric acid. Unlike phosphorus acid, arsenous acid is genuinely tribasic, with the formula As (OH)3.
A broad variety of sulphur compounds of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are known. Orpiment (As2S3) and realgar (As4S4) are somewhat abundant and were formerly used as paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, pigments. In As4S10, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, has a formal oxidation state of +2 in As4S4, which features As-As bonds so that the total covalence of As is still in fact three.
The trifluoride, trichloride, tribromide, and triiodide of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,(III) are well known, whereas only Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, pentafluoride (AsF5) is the only important pentahalide. Again reflecting the lower stability of the 5+ oxidation state, the pentachloride is stable only below -50 °C.
Organoarsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds
organoarsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chemistry
A large variety of organoarsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds are known. Several were developed as chemical warfare agents during World War I, including vesicants such as lewisite and vomiting agents such as adamsite. Cacodylic acid, which is of historic and practical interest, arises from the methylation of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trioxide, a reaction that has no analogy in phosphorus chemistry.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is used as the group 5 element in the III-V semiconductors gallium arsenide, indium arsenide, and aluminium arsenide. The valence electron count of GaAs is the same as a pair of Si atoms, but the band structure is completely different, which results distinct bulk properties. Other arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, alloys include the II-IV semiconductor cadmium arsenide.
Minerals with the formula MAsS and MAs2 (M = Fe, Ni, Co) are the dominant commercial sources of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, together with realgar (an arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sulphide mineral) and native arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. An illustrative mineral is arsenopyrite (FeAsS), which is structurally related to iron pyrite. Many minor As-containing minerals are known. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, also occurs in various organic forms in the environment. Inorganic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and its compounds, upon entering the food chain, are progressively metabolized to a less toxic form of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, through a process of methylation.
Other naturally occurring pathways of exposure include volcanic ash, weathering of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,-containing minerals and ores, and dissolved in groundwater. It is also found in food, water, soil, and air. The most common pathway of exposure for humans is ingestion, and the predominant source of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in our diet is through seafood. An additional route of exposure is through inhalation
In 2005, China was the top producer of white arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, with almost 50% world share, followed by Chile, Peru, and Morocco, according to the British Geological Survey and the United States Geological Survey. Most operations in the US and Europe have closed for environmental reasons. The arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is recovered mainly as a side product from the purification of copper. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is part of the smelter dust from copper, gold, and lead smelters.
On roasting in air of arsenopyrite, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sublimes as arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (III) oxide leaving iron oxides, while roasting without air results in the production of metallic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. Further purification from sulphur and other chalcogens is achieved by sublimation in vacuum or in a hydrogen atmosphere or by distillation from molten lead-arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, mixture.
The word arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was borrowed from the Syriac word (al) zarniqa and the Persian word Zarnikh, meaning "yellow orpiment", into Greek as arsenikon. It is also related to the similar Greek word arsenikos, meaning "masculine" or "potent". The word was adopted in Latin arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and Old French arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, from which the English word arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is derived. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sulphides (orpiment, realgar) and oxides have been known and used since ancient times. Zosimos (circa 300 AD) describes roasting sandarach (realgar) to obtain cloud of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (arsenious oxide), which he then reduces to metallic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. As the symptoms of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, poisoning were somewhat ill-defined, it was frequently used for murder until the advent of the Marsh test, a sensitive chemical test for its presence. (Another less sensitive but more general test is the Reinsch test.) Owing to its use by the ruling class to murder one another and its potency and discreetness, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, has been called the Poison of Kings and the King of Poisons.
During the Bronze Age, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was often included in bronze, which made the alloy harder (so-called "arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, bronze" ). Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great, 1193-1280) is believed to have been the first to isolate the element in 1250 by heating soap together with arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trisulfide. In 1649, Johann Schröder published two ways of preparing arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®.
Cadet's fuming liquid (impure cacodyl), often claimed as the first synthetic organometallic compound, was synthesized in 1760 by Louis Claude Cadet de Gassicourt by the reaction of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, acetate with arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trioxide.
In the Victorian era, "arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®," ("white arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®," trioxide) was mixed with vinegar and chalk and eaten by women to improve the complexion of their faces, making their skin paler to show they did not work in the fields. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was also rubbed into the faces and arms of women to "improve their complexion". The accidental use of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in the adulteration of foodstuffs led to the Bradford sweet poisoning in 1858, which resulted in approximately 20 deaths.
The toxicity of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to insects, bacteria and fungi led to its use as a wood preservative. In the 1950s a process of treating wood with chromated copper arsenate (also known as CCA or Tanalith) was invented, and for decades this treatment was the most extensive industrial use of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. An increased appreciation of the toxicity of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, resulted in a ban for the use of CCA in consumer products; the European Union and United States initiated this process in 2004. CCA remains in heavy use in other countries however, e.g. Malaysian rubber plantations.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was also used in various agricultural insecticides, termination and poisons. For example, lead hydrogen arsenate was a common insecticide on fruit trees, but contact with the compound sometimes resulted in brain damage among those working the sprayers. In the second half of the 20th century, monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) and disodium methyl arsenate (DSMA) - less toxic organic forms of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, - have replaced lead arsenate in agriculture.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is still added to animal food, in particular in the U.S. as a method of disease prevention and growth stimulation. One example is roxarsone, which is used as a broiler starter by about 70% of the broiler growers since 1995. The Poison-Free Poultry Act of 2009 proposes to ban the use of roxarsone in industrial swine and poultry production.
During the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, a number of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds have been used as medicines, including arsphenamine (by Paul Ehrlich) and arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trioxide (by Thomas Fowler). Arsphenamine as well as neosalvarsan was indicated for syphilis and trypanosomiasis, but has been superseded by modern antibiotics. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trioxide has been used in a variety of ways over the past 500 years, but most commonly in the treatment of cancer. The US Food and Drug Administration in 2000 approved this compound for the treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia that is resistant to ATRA. It was also used as Fowler's solution in psoriasis. Recently new research has been done in locating tumours using arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,-74 (a positron emitter). The advantages of using this isotope instead of the previously used iodine-124 is that the signal in the PET scan is clearer as the body tends to transport iodine to the thyroid gland producing a lot of noise.
In subtoxic doses, soluble arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds act as stimulants, and were once popular in small doses as medicine by people in the mid-18th century.
The main use of metallic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is for alloying with copper and especially lead. Lead components in car batteries are strengthened by the presence of a few percent of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. Gallium arsenide is an important semiconductor material, used in integrated circuits. Circuits made from GaAs are much faster (but also much more expensive) than those made in silicon. Unlike silicon it is direct bandgap, and so can be used in laser diodes and LEDs to directly convert electricity into light.
After World War I, the United States built up a stockpile of 20000tons of lewisite (ClCH=CHAsCl2), a chemical weapon that is a vesicant (blister agent) and lung irritant. The stockpile was neutralized with bleach and dumped into the Gulf of Mexico after the 1950s. During the Vietnam War the United States used Agent Blue, a mixture of sodium cacodylate and its acid form, as one of the rainbow herbicides to deprive the Vietnamese of valuable crops.
Copper acetoarsenite was used as a green pigment known under many names, including 'Paris Green' and 'Emerald Green'. It caused numerous arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, poisonings. Scheele's Green, a copper arsenate, was used in the 19th century as a colouring agent in sweets.
Also used in bronzing and pyrotechnics.
Up to 2% of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is used in lead alloys for lead shots and bullets.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is added in small quantities to alpha-brass to make it dezincification resistant. This grade of brass is used to make plumbing fittings or other items that are in constant contact with water.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is also used for taxonomic sample preservation.
Until recently arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was used in optical glass. Modern glass manufacturers, under pressure from environmentalists, have removed it, along with lead.
Some species of bacteria obtain their energy by oxidizing various fuels while reducing arsenate to arsenite. Under oxidative environmental conditions some bacteria use arsenite, which is oxidized to arsenate as fuel for their metabolism. The enzymes involved are known as arsenate reductases (Arr).
In 2008, bacteria were discovered that employ a version of photosynthesis in the absence of oxygen with arsenites as electron donors, producing arsenates (just as ordinary photosynthesis uses water as electron donor, producing molecular oxygen). Researchers conjecture that, over the course of history, these photosynthesizing organisms produced the arsenates that allowed the arsenate-reducing bacteria to thrive. One strain PHS-1 has been isolated and is related to the γ-Proteobacterium Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii. The mechanism is unknown, but an encoded Arr enzyme may function in reverse to its known homologues.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, has been linked to epigenetic changes that are heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes in DNA sequence and include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA interference. Toxic levels of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, cause significant DNA hypermethylation of tumour suppressor genes p16 and p53, thus increasing risk of carcinogenesis. These epigenetic events have been observed in in vitro studies with human kidney cells and in vivo tests with rat liver cells and peripheral blood leukocytes in humans. Inductive coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to detect precise levels of intracellular arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and its other bases involved in epigenetic modification of DNA. Studies investigating arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, as an epigenetic factor will help in developing precise biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.
The Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata) hyperaccumulates arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, present in the soil into its leaves and has a proposed use in phytoremediation.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, reported substituting for phosphorus as a building block of life.
A NASA-funded astrobiology research team claimed on December 2, 2010 that the microbe strain GFAJ-1 of the Gammaproteobacteria (designated Halomonadaceae) group has the ability to substitute arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, for at least part of the phosphorus in the molecules of its cells, including DNA and ATP. Bacteria from Mono Lake, a naturally arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,-rich site in California, were cultured in an environment high in arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, but low in phosphorus. This finding has faced strong criticism from the scientific community; many scientists have argued that there is no evidence that arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is actually incorporated into biomolecules. Independent confirmation of this finding has not yet been possible.
Biomethylation of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,
Inorganic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and its compounds, upon entering the food chain, are progressively metabolised through a process of methylation. For example, the mold Scopulariopsis brevicaulis produce significant amounts of trimethylarsine if inorganic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is present. The organic compound arsenobetaine is found in some marine foods such as fish and algae, and also in mushrooms in larger concentrations. The average person's intake is about 10-50 µg/day. Values about 1000 g are not unusual following consumption of fish or mushrooms. But there is little danger in eating fish because this arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compound is nearly non-toxic.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in drinking water
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, contamination of groundwater
Widespread arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, contamination of groundwater has led to a massive epidemic of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, poisoning in Bangladesh and neighbouring countries. As of this writing, 42 major incidents around the world have been reported on groundwater arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, contamination. It is estimated that approximately 57 million people are drinking groundwater with arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, concentrations elevated above the World Health Organization's standard of 10 parts per billion. However, a study of cancer rates in Taiwan suggested that significant increases in cancer mortality appear only at levels above 150 parts per billion. The arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in the groundwater is of natural origin, and is released from the sediment into the groundwater, owing to the anoxic conditions of the subsurface. This groundwater began to be used after local and western NGOs and the Bangladeshi government undertook a massive shallow tube well drinking-water program in the late twentieth century. This program was designed to prevent drinking of bacteria-contaminated surface waters, but failed to test for arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in the groundwater. Many other countries and districts in Southeast Asia, such as Vietnam and Cambodia have geological environments conducive to generation of high-arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, groundwater's. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, osis was reported in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand in 1987, and the dissolved arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in the Chao Phraya River is suspected of containing high levels of naturally occurring arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, but has not been a public health problem owing to the use of bottled water.
In the United States, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is most commonly found in the ground waters of the southwest. Parts of New England, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota and the Dakotas are also known to have significant concentrations of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in ground water. Increased levels of skin cancer have been associated with arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, exposure in Wisconsin, even at levels below the 10 part per billion drinking water standard. According to a recent film funded by the US Superfund, millions of private wells have unknown arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, levels, and in some areas of the US, over 20% of wells may contain levels that exceed established limits.
Low-level exposure to arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, at concentrations found commonly in US drinking water compromises the initial immune response to H1N1 or swine flu infection according to NIEHS-supported scientists. The study, conducted in laboratory mice, suggests that people exposed to arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in their drinking water may be at increased risk for more serious illness or death in response to infection from the virus.
Epidemiological evidence from Chile shows a dose-dependent connection between chronic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, exposure and various forms of cancer, in particular when other risk factors, such as cigarette smoking, are present. These effects have been demonstrated to persist below 50 parts per billion.
Analysing multiple epidemiological studies on inorganic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, exposure suggests a small but measurable risk increase for bladder cancer at 10 parts per billion. According to Peter Ravenscroft of the Department of Geography at the University of Cambridge, roughly 80 million people worldwide consume between 10 and 50 parts per billion arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in their drinking water. If they all consumed exactly 10 parts per billion arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in their drinking water, the previously cited multiple epidemiological study analysis would predict an additional 2,000 cases of bladder cancer alone. This represents a clear underestimate of the overall impact, since it does not include lung or skin cancer, and explicitly underestimates the exposure. Those exposed to levels of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, above the current WHO standard should weigh the costs and benefits of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, remediation.
Early (1973) evaluations of the removal of dissolved arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, by drinking water treatment processes demonstrated that arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is very effectively removed by co-precipitation with either iron or aluminum oxides. The use of iron as a coagulant, in particular, was found to remove arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, with efficiencies exceeding 90%. Several adsorptive media systems have been approved for point-of-service use in a study funded by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) and the National Science Foundation (NSF). A team of European and Indian scientists and engineers have set up six arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, treatment plants in West Bengal based on in-situ remediation method (SAR Technology). This technology does not use any chemicals and arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is left as an insoluble form (+5 state) in the subterranean zone by recharging aerated water into the aquifer and thus developing an oxidation zone to support arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, oxidizing micro-organisms. This process does not produce any waste stream or sludge and is relatively cheap.
Another effective and inexpensive method to remove arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, from contaminated well water is to sink wells 500 feet or deeper to reach purer waters. A recent 2011 study funded by the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences' Superfund Research Program shows that deep sediments can remove arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and take it out of circulation. Through this process called adsorption in which arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sticks to the surfaces of deep sediment articles, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, can be naturally removed from well water.
Magnetic separations of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, at very low magnetic field gradients have been demonstrated in point-of-use water purification with high-surface-area and monodisperse magnetite (Fe3O4) nanocrystals. Using the high specific surface area of Fe3O4 nanocrystals the mass of waste associated with arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, removal from water has been dramatically reduced.
Epidemiological studies have suggested a correlation between chronic consumption of drinking water contaminated with arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and the incidence of all leading causes of mortality. The literature provides reason to believe arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, exposure is causative in the pathogenesis of diabetes.
As of 2002, US-based industries consumed 19,600 metric tons of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. Ninety percent of this was used for treatment of wood with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). In 2007, 50% of the 5,280 metric tons of consumption was still used for this purpose. In the United States, the use of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in consumer products was discontinued for residential, and general consumer construction on December 31, 2003 and alternative chemicals are now used, such as Alkaline Copper Quaternary, borates, copper azole, cyproconazole, and propiconazole.
Although discontinued, this application is also one of the most concern to the general public. The vast majority of older pressure-treated wood was treated with CCA. CCA lumber is still in widespread use in many countries, and was heavily used during the latter half of the 20th century as a structural and outdoor building material. Although the use of CCA lumber was banned in many areas after studies showed that arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, could leach out of the wood into the surrounding soil (from playground equipment, for instance), a risk is also presented by the burning of older CCA timber. The direct or indirect ingestion of wood ash from burnt CCA lumber has caused fatalities in animals and serious poisonings in humans; the lethal human dose is approximately 20 grams of ash. Scrap CCA lumber from construction and demolition sites may be inadvertently used in commercial and domestic fires. Protocols for safe disposal of CCA lumber do not exist evenly throughout the world; there is also concern in some quarters about the widespread landfill disposal of such timber.
One tool that maps releases of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to particular locations in the United States and also provides additional information about such releases is TOXMAP. TOXMAP is a Geographic Information System (GIS) from the Division of Specialized Information Services of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) that uses maps of the United States to help users visually explore data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Toxics Release Inventory and Superfund Basic Research Programs. TOXMAP is a resource funded by the US Federal Government. TOXMAP's chemical and environmental health information is taken from NLM's Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and PubMed, and from other authoritative sources.
Main articles: Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, poisoning and Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, toxicity
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and many of its compounds are especially potent poisons. Many water supplies close to mines are contaminated by these poisons. Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, disrupts ATP production through several mechanisms. At the level of the citric acid cycle, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, inhibits lipoic acid, which is a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase; and by competing with phosphate it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, thus inhibiting energy-linked reduction of NAD+, mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis. Hydrogen peroxide production is also increased, which, it is speculated, has potential to form reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress. These metabolic interferences lead to death from multi-system organ failure, it is presumed from necrotic cell death, not apoptosis. A post mortem reveals brick-red-coloured mucosa, owing to severe haemorrhage. Although arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, causes toxicity, it can also play a protective role.
Elemental arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds are classified as "toxic" and "dangerous for the environment" in the European Union under directive 67/548/EEC. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recognizes arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds as group 1 carcinogens, and the EU lists arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, trioxide, arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, pentoxide and arsenate salts as category 1 carcinogens.
Arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is known to cause arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, osis owing to its manifestation in drinking water, "the most common species being arsenate and arsenite". The ability of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to undergo redox conversion between As(III) and As(V) makes its availability in the environment more abundant. According to Croal, Gralnick, Malasarn and Newman, "understanding what stimulates As(III) oxidation and/or limits As(V) reduction is relevant for bioremediation of contaminated sites (Croal). The study of chemolithoautotrophic As(III) oxidizers and the heterotrophic As(V) reducers can help the understanding of the oxidation and/or reduction of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®.
Treatment of chronic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, poisoning is easily accomplished. British anti-lewisite (dimercaprol) is prescribed in dosages of 5 mg/kg up to 300 mg each 4 hours for the first day. Then administer the same dosage each 6 hours for the second day. Then prescribe this dosage each 8 hours for eight additional days. However the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) states that the long-term effects of arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, exposure cannot be predicted. Blood, urine, hair, and nails may be tested for arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®; however, these tests cannot foresee possible health outcomes from the exposure. Excretion occurs in the urine and long-term exposure to arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, has been linked to bladder and kidney cancer in addition to cancer of the liver, prostate, skin, lungs and nasal cavity.
Occupational exposure and arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, poisoning may occur in persons working in industries involving the use of inorganic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and its compounds, such as wood preservation, glass production, nonferrous metal alloys, and electronic semiconductor manufacturing. Inorganic arsenic which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is also found in coke oven emissions associated with the smelter industry.
A solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® (from the Latin solvō, "I loosen, untie, I solve") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® at a specified temperature. Common uses for organic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® are in dry cleaning (e.g., tetrachloroethylene), as a paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, thinner (e.g., toluene, turpentine), as nail polish removers and glue solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® (acetone, methyl acetate, ethyl acetate), in spot removers (e.g., hexane, petrol ether), in detergents (citrus terpenes), in perfumes (ethanol), nail polish and in chemical synthesis. The use of inorganic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® (other than water) is typically limited to research chemistry and some technological processes.
In 2005, the worldwide market for solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® had a total volume of around 17.9 million tons, which led to a turnover of about €8,000,000,000.
When one substance is dissolved into another, a solution is formed. This is opposed to the situation when the compounds are insoluble and one of them precipitate like sand in water. In solution, all of the ingredients are uniformly distributed at a molecular level and no residue remains. The mixing is referred to as miscibility, whereas the ability to dissolve one compound into another is known as solubility. However, in addition to mixing, both substances in the solution interact with each other. When something is dissolved, molecules of the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® arrange themselves around molecules of the solute. Heat is involved and entropy is increased making the solution more thermodynamically stable than the solute alone. This arrangement is mediated by the respective chemical properties of the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® and solute, such as hydrogen bonding, dipole moment and polarizability.
Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® classifications
Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® can be broadly classified into two categories: polar and non-polar. Generally, the dielectric constant of the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® provides a rough measure of a solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®' polarity. The strong polarity of water is indicated, at 20 °C, by a dielectric constant of 80.10; Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® with a dielectric constant of less than 15 are generally considered to be nonpolar. Technically, the dielectric constant measures the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®' ability to reduce the field strength of the electric field surrounding a charged particle immersed in it. This reduction is then compared to the field strength of the charged particle in a vacuum. In layman's terms, dielectric constant of a solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® can be thought of as its ability to reduce the solute's internal charge.
Other polarity scales
Dielectric constants are not the only measure of polarity. Because solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® are used by chemists to carry out chemical reactions or observe chemical and biological phenomena, more specific measures of polarity are required.
The Grunwald Winstein mY scale measures polarity in terms of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® influence on build-up of positive charge of a solute during a chemical reaction.
Kosower's Z scale measures polarity in terms of the influence of the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® on uv absorption maxima of a salt, usually pyridinium iodide or the pyridinium zwitterion.
Donor number and donor acceptor scale measures polarity in terms of how a solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® interacts with specific substances, like a strong Lewis acid or a strong Lewis base.

The polarity, dipole moment, polarizability and hydrogen bonding of a solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® determines what type of compounds it is able to dissolve and with what other solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® or liquid compounds it is miscible. As a rule of thumb, polar solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® dissolve polar compounds best and non-polar solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® dissolve non-polar compounds best: "like dissolves like". Strongly polar compounds like sugars (e.g., sucrose) or ionic compounds, like inorganic salts (e.g., table salt) dissolve only in very polar solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® like water, while strongly non-polar compounds like oils or waxes dissolve only in very non-polar organic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® like hexane. Similarly, water and hexane (or vinegar and vegetable oil) are not miscible with each other and will quickly separate into two layers even after being shaken well.
Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® with a relative static permittivity greater than 15 can be further divided into protic and aprotic. Protic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® solvate anions (negatively charged solutes) strongly via hydrogen bonding. Water is a protic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. Aprotic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® such as acetone or dichloromethane tend to have large dipole moments (separation of partial positive and partial negative charges within the same molecule) and solvate positively charged species via their negative dipole. In chemical reactions the use of polar protic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® favours the SN1 reaction mechanism, while polar aprotic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® favour the SN2 reaction mechanism.
Physical properties of common solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®
Properties table of common solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®
The solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® are grouped into non-polar, polar aprotic, and polar protic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® and ordered by increasing polarity. The polarity is given as the dielectric constant. The properties of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® that exceed those of water are bolded.

There's another powerful way to look at these same solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. By knowing their Hansen solubility parameter values (HSPiP), which are based on δD=dispersion bonds, δP=polar bonds and δH=hydrogen bonds, you know important things about their inter-molecular interactions with other solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® and also with Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,s, pigments, nanoparticles etc. so you can do two things. First, you can create rational formulations knowing, for example, that there is a good HSP match between a solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® and a Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. Second, you can make rational substitutions for "good" solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® (they dissolve things well) that are "bad" (for the environment, for health, for cost etc.). The following table shows that the intuitions from "non-polar", "polar aprotic" and "polar protic" are put numerically - the "polar" molecules have higher levels of δP and the protic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® have higher levels of δH. Because numerical values are used, comparisons can be made rationally by comparing numbers. So acetonitrile is much more polar than acetone but slightly less hydrogen bonding.
Consider a simple example of rational substitution. Suppose for environmental reasons we needed to replace the chlorinated solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloroform, with a solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® (blend) of equal solvency using a mixture of two non-chlorinated solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® from this table. Via trial-and-error, a spreadsheet or some software such as HSPiP we find that a 50:50 mix of toluene and 1,4 dioxane is a close match. The δD of the mixture is the average of 18.0 and 17.5 = 17.8. The δP of the mixture is the average of 1.4 and 1.8 = 1.6 and the δH of the mixture is the average of 2.0 and 9.0 = 5.5. So the mixture is 17.8, 1.6, 5.5 compared to Chloroform at 17.8, 3.1, 5.7. Because Toluene itself has many health issues, other mixtures of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® can be found using a full Hansen solubility parameter dataset.
An important property of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® is boiling point. This also determines the speed of evaporation. Small amounts of low-boiling solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® like diethyl ether, dichloromethane, or acetone will evaporate in seconds at room temperature, while high-boiling solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® like water or dimethyl sulfoxide need higher temperatures, an air flow, or the application of vacuum for fast evaporation.
Most organic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® have a lower density than water, which means they are lighter and will form a separate layer on top of water. An important exception: most of the halogenated solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® like dichloromethane or chloroform will sink to the bottom of a container, leaving water as the top layer. This is important to remember when partitioning compounds between solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® and water in a separatory funnel during chemical syntheses.
Often, specific gravity is cited in place of density. Specific gravity is defined as the density of the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® divided by the density of water at the same temperature. As such, specific gravity is a unit-less value. It readily communicates whether a water-insoluble solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® will float (SG < 1.0) or sink (SG > 1.0) when mixed with water.
Most organic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® are flammable or highly flammable, depending on their volatility. Exceptions are some chlorinated solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® like dichloromethane and chloroform. Mixtures of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® vapours and air can explode. Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® vapours are heavier than air; they will sink to the bottom and can travel large distances nearly undiluted. Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® vapours can also be found in supposedly empty drums and cans, posing a flash fire hazard; hence empty containers of volatile solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® should be stored open and upside down.
Both diethyl ether and carbon disulphide have exceptionally low auto ignition temperatures which increase greatly the fire risk associated with these solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. The auto ignition temperature of carbon disulphide is below 100°C (212°F), so objects such as steam pipes, light bulbs, hot plates and recently extinguished bunsen burners are able to ignite its vapours.
Ethers like diethyl ether and tetrahydrofuran (THF) can form highly explosive organic peroxides upon exposure to oxygen and light, THF is normally more able to form such peroxides than diethyl ether. One of the most susceptible solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® is diisopropyl ether.
The heteroatom (oxygen) stabilizes the formation of a free radical which is formed by the abstraction of a hydrogen atom by another free radical. The carbon centred free radical thus formed is able to react with an oxygen molecule to form a peroxide compound. A range of tests can be used to detect the presence of a peroxide in an ether; one is to use a combination of iron sulphate and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, thiocyanate. The peroxide is able to oxidize the Fe2+ ion to an Fe3+ ion which then form a deep red coordination complex with the thiocyanate. In extreme cases the peroxides can form crystalline solids within the vessel of the ether.

Unless the desiccant used can destroy the peroxides, they will concentrate during distillation due to their higher boiling point. When sufficient peroxides have formed, they can form a crystalline and shock sensitive solid precipitate. When this solid is formed at the mouth of the bottle, turning the cap may provide sufficient energy for the peroxide to detonate. Peroxide formation is not a significant problem when solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® are used up quickly; they are more of a problem for laboratories which take years to finish a single bottle. Ethers have to be stored in the dark in closed canisters in the presence of stabilizers like butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) or over sodium hydroxide.
Peroxides may be removed by washing with acidic iron(II) sulphate, filtering through alumina, or distilling from sodium/benzophenone. Alumina does not destroy the peroxides; it merely traps them. The advantage of using sodium/benzophenone is that moisture and oxygen are removed as well.
General health hazards associated with solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® exposure include toxicity to the nervous system, reproductive damage, liver and kidney damage, respiratory impairment, cancer, and dermatitis.
Many solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® can lead to a sudden loss of consciousness if inhaled in large amounts. Solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® like diethyl ether and chloroform have been used in medicine as anaesthetics, sedatives, and hypnotics for a long time. Ethanol (grain alcohol) is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. Diethyl ether, chloroform, and many other solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® (e.g., from gasoline or glues) are used recreationally in glue sniffing, often with harmful long term health effects like neurotoxicity or cancer. Methanol can cause permanent blindness and death. It is also dangerous because it burns with an invisible flame.
It is interesting to note that ethanol has a synergistic effect when taken in combination with many solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. For instance a combination of toluene/benzene and ethanol causes greater nausea/vomiting than either substance alone.
Some solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® including chloroform and benzene (an ingredient of gasoline) are carcinogenic. Many others can damage internal organs like the liver, the kidneys, or the brain.
Chronic exposure to organic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® in the work environment can produce a range of adverse neuropsychiatric effects and, occupational exposure to organic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® has been associated with higher numbers of paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, regularly exposed to high levels of organic solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® suffering from alcoholism.
Avoid being exposed to solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® vapours by working in a fume hood, or with local exhaust ventilation (LEV), or in a well ventilated area.
Never use open flames near flammable solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®; use electrical heating instead.
Never flush flammable solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® down the drain; read safety data sheets for proper disposal information.
Avoid the inhalation of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® vapours.
Avoid contact of the solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® with the skin - many solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® are easily absorbed through the skin. They also tend to dry the skin and may cause sores and wounds.
A major pathway to induce health effects arises from spills or leaks of solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® that reach the underlying soil. Since solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® readily migrate substantial distances, the creation of widespread soil contamination is not uncommon; there may be about 5000 sites worldwide that have major subsurface solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® contamination; this is particularly a health risk if aquifers are affected.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, it is the chemical element with the symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. Elemental potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and is very reactive with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite the hydrogen emitted in the reaction.
Because potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and sodium are chemically very similar, it took a long time before their salts were differentiated. The existence of multiple elements in their salts was suspected from 1702, and this was proven in 1807 when potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and sodium were individually isolated from different salts by electrolysis. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in nature occurs only in ionic salts. As such, it is found dissolved in seawater (which is 0.04% potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, by weight ), and is part of many minerals.
Most industrial chemical applications of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, employ the relatively high solubility in water of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds, such as potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, soaps. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, metal has only a few special applications, being replaced in most chemical reactions with sodium metal.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ions are necessary for the function of all living cells. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ion diffusion is a key mechanism in nerve transmission, and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, depletion in animals, including humans, results in various cardiac dysfunctions. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is found in especially high concentrations within plant cells, and in a mixed diet, it is mostly concentrated in fruits. The high concentration of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in plants, associated with comparatively low amounts of sodium there, resulted in potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, being first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, giving the element its name. Heavy crop production rapidly depletes soils of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and agricultural fertilizers consume 95% of global potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chemical production. Unknown extension tag "ref".
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, atoms have 19 electrons, which is one more than the extremely stable configuration of argon. A potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, atom is thus much more likely to lose the "extra" electron than to gain one; however, the alkalide ions, K-, are known. Because of the low first ionization energy (418.8 kJ/mol) the potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, atom easily loses an electron and oxidizes into the mono-positive cation, K+. This process requires so little energy that potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is readily oxidized by atmospheric oxygen. In contrast, the second ionization energy, is very high (3052 kJ/mol), because removal of two electrons breaks the stable noble gas electronic configuration. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, therefore does not readily form compounds with the oxidation state of +2 (or higher).
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is the second least dense metal after lithium. It is a soft solid that has a low melting point and can easily be cut with a knife. Freshly cut potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is silvery in appearance, but it begins to tarnish toward grey immediately after being exposed to air. Unknown extension tag "ref" In a flame test, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and its compounds emit a lilac colour with a peak emission wavelength of 766.5 nm (see movie below).Unknown extension tag "ref"
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is an extremely active metal, which reacts violently with oxygen and water in air. With oxygen, it converts to potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, peroxide and with water potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide. The reaction of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, with water is dangerous because of its violent exothermic character and the production of hydrogen gas. Hydrogen reacts again with atmospheric oxygen, producing water, which reacts with the remaining potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. This reaction requires only traces of water; because of this, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and its liquid alloy with sodium - NaK - are potent desiccants that can be used to dry solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® prior to distillation.
Because of the sensitivity of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to water and air, the reactions are possible only in inert atmosphere, such as argon gas using air-free techniques. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, does not react with most hydrocarbons, such as mineral oil or kerosene. It readily dissolves in liquid ammonia, up to 480 g per 1000 g of ammonia at 0 °C. Depending on the concentration, the ammonia solutions are blue to yellow, and their electrical conductivity is similar to that of liquid metals. In a pure solution, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, slowly reacts with ammonia to form KNH2, but this reaction is accelerated by minute amounts of transition metal salts. It can reduce the salts to the metal; potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is often used as the reductant in the preparation of finely divided metals from their salts by the Rieke method. For example, the preparation of Rieke magnesium employs potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, as the reductant:
The only common oxidation state for potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is +1. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, metal is a powerful reducing agent that is easily oxidized to the mono-positive cation, K+. Once oxidized, it is very stable and difficult to reduce back to the metal.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide reacts readily with carbon dioxide to produce potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, carbonate, and is used to remove traces of the gas from air. In general, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds have excellent water solubility, owing to the high hydration energy of the K+ ion. The potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ion is colourless in water and is very difficult to precipitate; possible precipitation methods include reactions with sodium tetraphenylborate, hexachloroplatinic acid, and sodium cobaltinitrite.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, oxidizes faster than most metals and forms oxides with oxygen-oxygen bonds, as do all alkali metals except lithium. Three species are formed during the reaction: potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, oxide, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, peroxide, and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, superoxide, which contain three different oxygen-based ions: oxide (O2-), peroxide (O2-2), and superoxide (O-2).
The last two species, especially the superoxide, are rare and are formed only in reaction with very electropositive metals; these species contain oxygen-oxygen bonds. All potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,-oxygen binary compounds are known to react with water violently, forming potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide. This compound is a very strong alkali, and 1.21 kg of it can dissolve as much as a litre of water.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds are typically highly ionic and thus most of them are soluble in water. The main species in water are the aquo complexes + where n = 6 and 7. Some of the few salts that are poorly soluble include potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, tetraphenylborate, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hexachloroplatinate, and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, cobaltinitrite.
isotopes of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,
There are 24 known isotopes of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, three of which occur naturally: 39K (93.3%), 40K (0.0117%), and 41K (6.7%). Naturally occurring 40K has a half-life of 1.250×109 years. It decays to stable 40Ar by electron capture or positron emission (11.2%) or to stable 40Ca by beta decay (88.8%). The decay of 40K to 40Ar enables a commonly used method for dating rocks. The conventional K-Ar dating method depends on the assumption that the rocks contained no argon at the time of formation and that all the subsequent radiogenic argon (i.e., 40Ar) was quantitatively retained. Minerals are dated by measurement of the concentration of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and the amount of radiogenic 40Ar that has accumulated. The minerals that are best suited for dating include biotite, muscovite, metamorphic hornblende, and volcanic feldspar; whole rock samples from volcanic flows and shallow instrusive's can also be dated if they are unaltered. Outside of dating, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, isotopes have been used as tracers in studies of weathering and for nutrient cycling studies because potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a macronutrient required for life.
40K occurs in natural potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (and thus in some commercial salt substitutes) in sufficient quantity that large bags of those substitutes can be used as a radioactive source for classroom demonstrations. In healthy animals and people, 40K represents the largest source of radioactivity, greater even than 14C. In a human body of 70 kg mass, about 4,400 nuclei of 40K decay per second. The activity of natural potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is 31 Bq/g.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is formed in the universe by nucleosynthesis from lighter atoms. The stable form of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is created in supernovas via the explosive Oxygen-burning process.
Elemental potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, does not occur in nature because it reacts violently with water (see section Precautions below). As various compounds, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, makes up about 2.6% of the weight of the Earth's crust and is the seventh most abundant element, similar in abundance to sodium at approximately 1.8% of the crust. Unknown extension tag "ref" In seawater, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, at 0.39 g/L (0.039 wt/v%) is far less abundant than sodium at 10.8 g/L (1.08 wt/v%).
Orthoclase (potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, feldspar) is a common rock-forming mineral. Granite for example contains 5% potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, which is well above the average in the Earth's crust. Sylvite (KCl), carnallite (KCl•MgCl2•6(H2O)), kainite (MgSO4•KCl•3H2O) and langbeinite (MgSO4•K2SO4)) are the minerals found in large evaporite deposits worldwide. The deposits often show layers starting with the least soluble at the bottom and the most soluble on top. Deposits of niter (potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, nitrate) are formed by decomposition of organic material in contact with atmosphere, mostly in caves; because of the good water solubility of niter the formation of larger deposits requires special environmental conditions.
Neither elemental potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, nor potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts (as separate entities from other salts) were known in Roman times, and the Latin name of the element is not Classical Latin but rather neo-Latin. The Latin name kalium was taken from the word "alkali", which in turn came from Arabic: al-qalyah "plant ashes." The similar-sounding English term alkali is from this same root (potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in Modern Standard Arabic is ).
The English name for the element potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, comes from the word "potash", referring to the method by which potash was obtained - leaching the ash of burnt wood or tree leaves and evaporating the solution in a pot. Potash is primarily a mixture of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts because plants have little or no sodium content, and the rest of a plant's major mineral content consists of calcium salts of relatively low solubility in water. While potash has been used since ancient times, it was not understood for most of its history to be a fundamentally different substance from sodium mineral salts. Georg Ernst Stahl obtained experimental evidence that led him to suggest the fundamental difference of sodium and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts in 1702, and Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau was able to prove this difference in 1736. The exact chemical composition of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and sodium compounds, and the status as chemical element of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and sodium, was not known then, and thus Antoine Lavoisier did include the alkali in his list of chemical elements in 1789.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, metal was first isolated in 1807 in England by Sir Humphry Davy, who derived it from caustic potash (KOH), by the use of electrolysis of the molten salt with the newly discovered voltaic pile. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was the first metal that was isolated by electrolysis. Later in the same year, Davy reported extraction of the metal sodium from a mineral derivative (caustic soda, NaOH, or lye) rather than a plant salt, by a similar technique, demonstrating that the elements, and thus the salts, are different. Although the production of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and sodium metal should have shown that both are elements, it took some time before this view was universally accepted.
For a long time the only significant applications for potash were the production of glass, bleach, and soap. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, soaps from animal fats and vegetable oils were especially prized, as they tended to be more water-soluble and of softer texture, and were known as soft soaps. Unknown extension tag "ref" The discovery by Justus Liebig in 1840 that potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a necessary element for plants and that most types of soil lack potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, caused a steep rise in demand for potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts. Wood-ash from fir trees was initially used as a potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salt source for fertilizer, but, with the discovery in 1868 of mineral deposits containing potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride near Staßfurt, Germany, the production of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,-containing fertilizers began at an industrial scale. Other potash deposits were discovered, and by the 1960s Canada became the dominant producer.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts such as carnallite, langbeinite, polyhalite, and sylvite form extensive deposits in ancient lake and seabed's, making extraction of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts in these environments commercially viable. The principal source of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, - potash - is mined in Canada, Russia, Belarus, Germany, Israel, United States, Jordan, and other places around the world. The first mined deposits were located near Staßfurt, Germany, but the deposits span from Great Britain over Germany into Poland. They are located in the Zechstein and were deposited in the Middle to Late Permian. The largest deposits ever found lie 1000 meters (3000 feet) below the surface of the Canadian province of Saskatchewan. The deposits are located in the Elk Point Group produced in the Middle Devonian. Saskatchewan, where several large mines have operated since the 1960s, pioneered the use of freezing of wet sands (the Blairmore formation) in order to drive mine shafts through them. The main potash mining company in Saskatchewan is the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan. The water of the Dead Sea is used by Israel and Jordan as a source for potash, while the concentration in normal oceans is too low for commercial production.
Several methods are applied to separate the potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts from the present sodium and magnesium compounds. The most-used method is to precipitate some compounds relying on the solubility difference of the salts at different temperatures. Electrostatic separation of the ground salt mixture is also used in some mines. The resulting sodium and magnesium waste is either stored underground or piled up in slag heaps. Most of the mined potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, minerals end up as potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride after processing. The mineral industry refers to potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride either as potash, muriate of potash, or simply MOP.
Pure potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, metal can be isolated by electrolysis of its hydroxide in a process that has changed little since Davy. Although the electrolysis process was developed and used in industrial scale in the 1920s the thermal method by reacting sodium with potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride in a chemical equilibrium reaction became the dominant method in the 1950s. The production of sodium potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, alloys is possible by changing the reaction time and the amount of sodium used in the reaction. The Griesheimer process employing the reaction of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, fluoride with calcium carbide was also used to produce potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,.
Reagent-grade potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, metal cost about $10.00/pound ($22/kg) in 2010 when purchased in tonne quantities. Lower purity metal is considerably cheaper. The market is volatile due to the difficulty of the long-term storage of the metal. It must be stored under a dry inert gas atmosphere or anhydrous mineral oil to prevent the formation of a surface layer of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, superoxide. This superoxide is a pressure-sensitive explosive that will detonate when scratched. The resulting explosion will usually start a fire that is difficult to extinguish.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in biology
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is the eighth or ninth most common element by mass (0.2%) in the human body, so that a 60 kg adult contains a total of about 120 grams of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. The body has about as much potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, as sulphur and chlorine, and only the major minerals calcium and phosphorus are more abundant.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, cations are important in neuron (brain and nerve) function, and in influencing osmotic balance between cells and the interstitial fluid, with their distribution mediated in all animals (but not in all plants) by the so-called Na+/K+-ATPase pump. This ion pump uses ATP to pump three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ions into the cell, thus creating an electrochemical gradient over the cell membrane. In addition, the highly selective potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ion channels (which are tetramers) are crucial for the hyperpolarization, in for example neurons, after an action potential is fired. The most recently resolved potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ion channel is KirBac3.1, which gives a total of five potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ion channels (KcsA, KirBac1.1, KirBac3.1, KvAP, and MthK) with a determined structure. All five are from prokaryotic species.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, can be detected by taste because it triggers three of the five types of taste sensations, according to concentration. Dilute solutions of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ions taste sweet, allowing moderate concentrations in milk and juices, while higher concentrations become increasingly bitter/alkaline, and finally also salty to the taste. The combined bitterness and saltiness of high-potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, solutions makes high-dose potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, supplementation by liquid drinks a palatability challenge.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is also important in preventing muscle contraction and the sending of all nerve impulses in animals through action potentials. By nature of their electrostatic and chemical properties, K+ ions are larger than Na+ ions, and ion channels and pumps in cell membranes can distinguish between the two types of ions, actively pumping or passively allowing one of the two ions to pass, while blocking the other.
A shortage of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in body fluids may cause a potentially fatal condition known as hypokalemia, typically resulting from vomiting, diarrhoea, and/or increased diuresis. Deficiency symptoms include muscle weakness, paralytic ileus, ECG abnormalities, decreased reflex response and in severe cases respiratory paralysis, alkalosis and cardiac arrhythmia.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is an essential mineral micronutrient in human nutrition; it is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, and it is thus important in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. Sodium makes up most of the cations of blood plasma at a reference range of about 145 milliequivalents per litre (mEq/L; 3.345 grams), and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, makes up most of the cell fluid cations at about 150 mEq/L (4.8 grams). Plasma is filtered through the glomerulus of the kidneys in enormous amounts, about 180 litres per day. Thus 602 grams of sodium and 33 grams of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are filtered each day. All but the 1-10 grams of sodium and the 1-4 grams of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, likely to be in the diet must be reabsorbed. Sodium must be reabsorbed in such a way as to keep the blood volume exactly right and the osmotic pressure correct; potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, must be reabsorbed in such a way as to keep serum concentration as close as possible to 4.8 mEq/L (about 0.190 g/L). Sodium pumps in the kidneys must always operate to conserve sodium. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, must sometimes be conserved also, but, as the amount of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in the blood plasma is very small and the pool of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in the cells is about thirty times as large, the situation is not so critical for potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. Since potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is moved passively in counter flow to sodium in response to an apparent (but not actual) Donnan equilibrium, the urine can never sink below the concentration of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in serum except sometimes by actively excreting water at the end of the processing. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is secreted twice and reabsorbed three times before the urine reaches the collecting tubules. At that point, it usually has about the same potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, concentration as plasma. At the end of the processing, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is secreted one more time if the serum levels are too high.
If potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, were removed from the diet, there would remain a minimum obligatory kidney excretion of about 200 mg per day when the serum declines to 3.0-3.5 mEq/L in about one week, and can never be cut off completely, resulting in hypokalemia and even death.
The potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, moves passively through pores in the cell membrane. When ions move through pumps there is a gate in the pumps on either side of the cell membrane and only one gate can be open at once. As a result, approximately 100 ions are forced through per second. Pores have only one gate, and there only one kind of ion can stream through, at 10 million to 100 million ions per second. The pores require calcium in order to open although it is thought that the calcium works in reverse by blocking at least one of the pores. Carbonyl groups inside the pore on the amino acids mimic the water hydration that takes place in water solution by the nature of the electrostatic charges on four carbonyl groups inside the pore.
A potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, intake sufficient to support life can in general be guaranteed by eating a variety of foods. Clear cases of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, deficiency (as defined by symptoms, signs and a below-normal blood level of the element) are rare in healthy individuals. Foods rich in potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, include parsley, dried apricots, dried milk, chocolate, various nuts (especially almonds and pistachios), potatoes, bamboo shoots, bananas, avocados, soybeans, and bran, although it is also present in sufficient quantities in most fruits, vegetables, meat and fish.

Epidemiological studies and studies in animals subject to hypertension indicate that diets high in potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, can reduce the risk of hypertension and possibly stroke (by a mechanism independent of blood pressure), and a potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, deficiency combined with an inadequate thiamine intake has produced heart disease in rats. There is some debate regarding the optimal amount of dietary potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. For example, the 2004 guidelines of the Institute of Medicine specify a DRI of 4,000 mg of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (100 mEq), though most Americans consume only half that amount per day, which would make them formally deficient as regards this particular recommendation. Likewise, in the European Union, in particular in Germany and Italy, insufficient potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, intake is somewhat common. Italian researchers reported in a 2011 meta-analysis that a 1.64 g higher daily intake of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was associated with a 21% lower risk of stroke.
Supplements of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in medicine are most widely used in conjunction with loop diuretics and thiazides, classes of diuretics that rid the body of sodium and water, but have the side-effect of also causing potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, loss in urine. A variety of medical and non-medical supplements are available. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts such as potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride may be dissolved in water, but the salty/bitter taste of high concentrations of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ion make palatable high concentration liquid supplements difficult to formulate. Typical medical supplemental doses range from 10 mEq (400 mg, about equal to a cup of milk or 6 US fl oz (180 ml). of orange juice) to 20 mEq (800 mg) per dose. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts are also available in tablets or capsules, which for therapeutic purposes are formulated to allow potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to leach slowly out of a matrix, as very high concentrations of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ion (which might occur next to a solid tablet of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride) can kill tissue, and cause injury to the gastric or intestinal mucosa. For this reason, non-prescription supplement potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, pills are limited by law in the US to only 99 mg of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,.
Individuals suffering from kidney diseases may suffer adverse health effects from consuming large quantities of dietary potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. End stage renal failure patients undergoing therapy by renal dialysis must observe strict dietary limits on potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, intake, as the kidneys control potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, excretion, and build-up of blood concentrations of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, (hyperkalemia) may trigger fatal cardiac arrhythmia.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ions are an essential component of plant nutrition and are found in most soil types. Unknown extension tag "ref" They are used as a fertilizer in agriculture, horticulture, and hydroponic culture in the form of chloride (KCl), sulphate (K2SO4), or nitrate (KNO3). Agricultural fertilizers consume 95% of global potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chemical production, and about 90% of this potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is supplied as KCl. Unknown extension tag "ref" The potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, content of most plants range from 0.5% to 2% of the harvested weight of crops, conventionally expressed as amount of K2O. Modern high-yield agriculture depends upon fertilizers to replace the potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, lost at harvest. Most agricultural fertilizers contain potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride, while potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sulphate is used for chloride-sensitive crops or crops needing higher sulphur content. The sulphate is produced mostly by decomposition of the complex minerals kainite (MgSO4•KCl•3H2O) and langbeinite (MgSO4•K2SO4). Only a very few fertilizers contain potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, nitrate. In 2005, about 93% of world potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, production was consumed by the fertilizer industry.
The potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, cation is a nutrient necessary for human life and health. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride is used as a substitute for table salt by those seeking to reduce sodium intake so as to control hypertension. The USDA lists tomato paste, orange juice, beet greens, white beans, potatoes, bananas and many other good dietary sources of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ranked in descending order according to potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, content.

Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sodium tartrate (KNaC4H4O6, Rochelle salt) is the main constituent of baking powder; it is also used in the silvering of mirrors. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, bromate (KBrO3) is a strong oxidizer (E924), used to improve dough strength and rise height. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, bisulfite (KHSO3) is used as a food preservative, for example in wine and beer-making (but not in meats). It is also used to bleach textiles and straw, and in the tanning of leathers.
Major potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chemicals are potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, carbonate, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, sulphate, and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride. Megatons of these compounds are produced annually.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide KOH is a strong base, which is used in industry to neutralize strong and weak acids, to control pH and to manufacture potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, salts. It is also used to saponify fats and oils, in industrial cleaners, and in hydrolysis reactions, for example of esters.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, nitrate (KNO3) or saltpeter is obtained from natural sources such as guano and evaporites or manufactured via the Haber process; it is the oxidant in gunpowder (black powder) and an important agricultural fertilizer. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, cyanide (KCN) is used industrially to dissolve copper and precious metals, in particular silver and gold, by forming complexes. Its applications include gold mining, electroplating, and electroforming of these metals; it is also used in organic synthesis to make nitriles. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, carbonate (K2CO3 or potash) is used in the manufacture of glass, soap, colour TV tubes, fluorescent lamps, textile dyes and pigments. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, permanganate (KMnO4) is an oxidizing, bleaching and purification substance and is used for production of saccharin. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chlorite (KClO3) is added to matches and explosives. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, bromide (KBr) was formerly used as a sedative and in photography. Unknown extension tag "ref"
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chromate (K2CrO4) is used in inks, dyes, stains (bright yellowish-red colour); in explosives and fireworks; in the tanning of leather, in fly paper and safety matches, but all these uses are due to the properties of chromate ion containment rather than potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, ions.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds are so pervasive that thousands of small uses are in place. The superoxide KO2 is an orange solid that acts as a portable source of oxygen and a carbon dioxide absorber. It is widely used in respiration systems in mines, submarines and spacecraft as it takes less volume than the gaseous oxygen. Unknown extension tag "ref".
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, cobaltinitrite K3 is used as artist's pigment under the name of Aureolin or Cobalt yellow
An alloy of sodium and potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, NaK is a liquid used as a heat-transfer medium and a desiccant for producing dry and air-free solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. It can also be used in reactive distillation. The ternary alloy of 12% Na, 47% K and 41% Cs has the lowest melting point of -78 °C of any metallic compound. Unknown extension tag "ref".
Metallic potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is used in several types of magnetometers.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, reacts very violently with water producing potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide (KOH) and hydrogen gas.
This reaction is exothermic and releases enough heat to ignite the resulting hydrogen. It in turn may explode in the presence of oxygen. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, hydroxide is a strong alkali that causes skin burns. Finely divided potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, will ignite in air at room temperature. The bulk metal will ignite in air if heated. Because its density is 0.89 g/cm3, burning potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, floats in water that exposes it to atmospheric oxygen. Many common fire extinguishing agents, including water, either are ineffective or make a potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, fire worse. Nitrogen, argon, Sodium chloride (table salt), sodium carbonate (soda ash), and silicon dioxide (sand) are effective if they are dry. Some Class D dry powder extinguishers designed for metal fires are also effective. These agents deprive the fire of oxygen and cool the potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, metal.
Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, reacts violently with halogens and will detonate in the presence of bromine. It also reacts explosively with sulfuric acid. During combustion potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, forms peroxides and super-oxides. These peroxides may react violently with organic compounds such as oils. Both peroxides and super-oxides may react explosively with metallic potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®.
Because potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, reacts with water vapour present in the air, it is usually stored under anhydrous mineral oil or kerosene. Unlike lithium and sodium, however, potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, should not be stored under oil for longer than 6 months, unless in an inert (oxygen free) atmosphere, or under vacuum. After prolonged storage in air dangerous shock-sensitive peroxides can form on the metal and under the lid of the container, and can detonate upon opening.
Because of the highly reactive nature of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, metal, it must be handled with great care, with full skin and eye protection and preferably an explosion-resistant barrier between the user and the metal. Ingestion of large amounts of potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, compounds can lead to hyperkalemia strongly influencing the cardiovascular system. Potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chloride is used in the United States for death penalty via lethal injection.
A polyurethane (PUR and PU) is Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, composed of a chain of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links. Polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are formed by combining two bi- or higher functional monomers. One contains two or more isocyanate functional groups and the other contains two or more hydroxyl groups. More complicated monomers are also used. The alcohol and the isocyanate groups combine to form a urethane linkage:
This combining process, sometimes called condensation, typically requires the presence of a catalyst.
Polyurethanes are used in the manufacture of flexible, high-resilience foam seating; rigid foam insulation panels; microcellular foam seals and gaskets; durable elastomeric wheels and tires; automotive suspension bushings; electrical potting compounds; high performance adhesives; surface coatings and surface sealants; synthetic fibres (e.g. Spandex); carpet underlay; and hard-plastic parts (i.e. for electronic instruments). Polyurethane is also used for the manufacture of hose as it combines the best properties of both rubber and plastic.
The pioneering on polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, was conducted by Otto Bayer and his co-worker's in 1937 at the laboratories of I.G. Farben in Leverkusen, Germany. They recognized that using the poly-addition principle to produce polyurethanes from liquid diisocyanates and liquid polyether or polyester diols seemed to point to special opportunities, especially when compared to already existing plastics that were made by Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,izing olefins, or by poly-condensation. The new monomer combination also circumvented existing patents obtained by Wallace Carothers on polyesters. Initially, work focused on the production of fibres and flexible foams. With development constrained by World War II (when PUs were applied on a limited scale as aircraft coating ), it was not until 1952 that poly-isocyanates became commercially available. Commercial production of flexible polyurethane foam began in 1954, based on toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and polyester polyols. The invention of these foams (initially called imitation Swiss cheese by the inventors ) was thanks to water accidentally introduced in the reaction mix. These materials were also used to produce rigid foams, gum rubber, and elastomers. Linear fibres were produced from hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and 1,4-butanediol (BDO).
The first commercially available polyether polyol, poly (tetramethylene ether) glycol, was introduced by DuPont in 1956 by Polymerizing which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, tetrahydrofuran. Less expensive polyalkylene glycols were introduced by BASF and Dow Chemical in 1957. Polyether polyols offered technical and commercial advantages such as low cost, ease of handling, and better hydrolytic stability over polyester polyols and quickly replaced them in the manufacture of polyurethane goods. Other PU pioneers were Union Carbide and Mobay, a U.S. Monsanto/Bayer joint venture. In 1960 more than 45,000 metric tons of flexible polyurethane foams were produced. As the decade progressed, the availability of chlorofluoroalkane blowing agents, inexpensive polyether polyols, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) heralded the development and use of polyurethane rigid foams as high performance insulation materials. Rigid foams based on Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,ic MDI (PMDI) offered better thermal stability and combustion characteristics than those based on TDI. In 1967, urethane modified polyisocyanurate rigid foams were introduced, offering even better thermal stability and flammability resistance compared to low-density insulation products. During the 1960s, automotive interior safety components such as instrument and door panels were produced by back-filling thermoplastic skins with semi-rigid foam.
In 1969, Bayer exhibited an all plastic car in Düsseldorf, Germany. Parts of this car were manufactured using a new process called RIM, Reaction Injection Molding. RIM technology uses high pressure impingement of liquid reactive components followed by the rapid flow of the reaction mixture into a mould cavity. Large parts, such as automotive fascia and body panels, can be moulded in this manner. Polyurethane RIM evolved into a number of different products and processes. Using diamine chain extenders and trimerization technology gave poly (urethane urea), poly(urethane isocyanurate), and polyuria RIM. The addition of fillers, such as milled glass, mica, and processed mineral fibres gave rise to reinforced RIM (RRIM), which provided improvements in flexural modulus (stiffness), reduction in coefficient of thermal expansion and thermal stability. This technology allowed production of the first plastic-body automobile in the United States, the Pontiac Fiero, in 1983. Further increases in flexural modulus were obtained by incorporating pre-placed glass mats into the RIM mould cavity, also known broadly as resin injection moulding (a process technology that also includes thermosetting polyester resins, epoxide resins, etc.) or more specifically for PUR systems as SRIM, or structural RIM.

Starting in the early 1980s, water-blown microcellular flexible foams were used to mould gaskets for panel and radial seal air filters in the automotive industry. Since then, increasing energy prices and the pressures to eliminate PVC plastisol from automotive applications have greatly increased market share. Costlier raw materials are offset by a significant decrease in part weight and in some cases, the elimination of metal end caps and filter housings. Highly filled polyurethane elastomers, and more recently unfilled polyurethane foams are now used in high temperature oil filter applications.
Polyurethane foam (including foam rubber) is often made by adding small amounts of volatile materials, so-called blowing agents, to the reaction mixture. These volatile chemicals yield important performance characteristics, primarily density reduction, cushioning/energy absorption and thermal insulation. In the early 1990s, because of their impact on ozone depletion, the Montreal Protocol led to the greatly reduced use of many chlorine-containing blowing agents, such as trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11). Other haloalkanes, such as the hydrochlorofluorocarbon 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b), were used as interim replacements until their phase out under the IPPC directive on greenhouse gases in 1994 and by the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) directive of the EU in 1997 (See: Haloalkanes). By the late 1990s, the use of blowing agents such as carbon dioxide, pentane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) and 1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane (HFC-245fa) became more widespread in North America and the EU, although chlorinated blowing agents remained in use in many developing countries.
Building on existing polyurethane spray coating technology and polyetheramine chemistry, extensive development of two-component polyurea spray elastomers took place in the 1990s. Their fast reactivity and relative insensitivity to moisture make them useful coatings for large surface area projects, such as secondary containment, manhole and tunnel coatings, and tank liners. Excellent adhesion to concrete and steel is obtained with the proper surface treatment and primer. During the same period, new two-component polyurethane and hybrid polyurethane-polyurea elastomer technology was used to enter the marketplace of spray-in-place load bed liners and military marine applications for the U.S. Navy. Even a one-part polyurethane is specified as high durability deck coatings under MIL-PRF-32171 for the US Navy. This technique for coating creates a durable, abrasion resistant composite with the metal substrate, and eliminates corrosion and brittleness associated with drop-in thermoplastic bed liners.
Polyurethanes are in the class of compounds called reaction Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, which include epoxies, unsaturated polyesters, and phenolics. A urethane linkage is produced by reacting an isocyanate group, -N=C=O with a hydroxyl (alcohol) group, -OH. Polyurethanes are produced by the poly-addition reaction of a poly-isocyanate with a polyalcohol (polyol) in the presence of a catalyst and other additives. In this case, a poly-isocyanate is a molecule with two or more isocyanate functional groups, R-(N=C=O)n ≥ 2 and a polyol is a molecule with two or more hydroxyl functional groups, R'-(OH)n 2. The reaction product is a Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, containing the urethane linkage, -RNHCOOR'-. Isocyanates will react with any molecule that contains an active hydrogen. Importantly, isocyanates react with water to form a urea linkage and carbon dioxide gas; they also react with poly-etheramines to form poly-ureas. Commercially, polyurethanes are produced by reacting a liquid isocyanate with a liquid blend of polyols, catalyst, and other additives. These two components are referred to as a polyurethane system, or simply a system. The isocyanate is commonly referred to in North America as the 'A-side' or just the 'iso'. The blend of polyols and other additives is commonly referred to as the 'B-side' or as the 'poly'. This mixture might also be called a 'resin' or 'resin blend'. In Europe the meanings for 'A-side' and 'B-side' are reversed. Resin blend additives may include chain extenders, cross linkers, surfactants, flame retardants, blowing agents, pigments, and fillers.
The first essential component of a polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is the isocyanate. Molecules that contain two isocyanate groups are called diisocyanates. These molecules are also referred to as monomers or monomer units, since they themselves are used to produce Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, isocyanates that contain three or more isocyanate functional groups. Isocyanates can be classed as aromatic, such as diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) or toluene diisocyanate (TDI); or aliphatic, such as hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). An example of a Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, isocyanate is Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, diphenylmethane diisocyanate, which is a blend of molecules with two-, three-, and four- or more isocyanate groups, with an average functionality of 2.7. Isocyanates can be further modified by partially reacting them with a polyol to form a pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. A quasi-pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is formed when the stoichiometric ratio of isocyanate to hydroxyl groups is greater than 2:1. A true pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is formed when the stoichiometric ratio is equal to 2:1. Important characteristics of isocyanates are their molecular backbone, % NCO content, functionality, and viscosity.

The second essential component of a polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is the polyol. Molecules that contain two hydroxyl groups are called diols, those with three hydroxyl groups are called triols, etc. In practice, polyols are distinguished from short chain or low-molecular weight glycol chain extenders and cross linkers such as ethylene glycol (EG), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), diethylene glycol (DEG), glycerine, and trimethylolpropane (TMP). Polyols are Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, in their own right. They are formed by base-catalyzed addition of propylene oxide (PO), ethylene oxide (EO) onto a hydroxyl or amine containing initiator, or by polyesterification of a di-acid, such as adipic acid, with glycols, such as ethylene glycol or dipropylene glycol (DPG). Polyols extended with PO or EO are polyether polyols. Polyols formed by polyesterification are polyester polyols. The choice of initiator, extender, and molecular weight of the polyol greatly affect its physical state, and the physical properties of the polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,. Important characteristics of polyols are their molecular backbone, initiator, molecular weight, % primary hydroxyl groups, functionality, and viscosity.
The Polymerization which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, reaction is catalyzed by tertiary amines, such as dimethylcyclohexylamine, and organometallic compounds, such as dibutyltin dilaurate or bismuth octanoate. Furthermore, catalysts can be chosen based on whether they favour the urethane (gel) reaction, such as 1,4-diazabicyclo octane (also called DABCO or TEDA), or the urea (blow) reaction, such as bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)ether, or specifically drive the isocyanate trimerization reaction, such as potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, octoate.

One of the most desirable attributes of polyurethanes is their ability to be turned into foam. Blowing agents such as water, certain halocarbons such as HFC-245fa (1,1,1,3,3-pentafluoropropane) and HFC-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), and hydrocarbons such as n-pentane, can be incorporated into the poly side or added as an auxiliary stream. Water reacts with the isocyanate to create carbon dioxide gas, which fills and expands cells created during the mixing process. The reaction is a three step process. A water molecule reacts with an isocyanate group to form a carbamic acid. Carbamic acids are unstable, and decompose forming carbon dioxide and an amine. The amine reacts with more isocyanate to give a substituted urea. Water has a very low molecular weight, so even though the weight percent of water may be small, the molar proportion of water may be high and considerable amounts of urea produced. The urea is not very soluble in the reaction mixture and tends to form separate "hard segment" phases consisting mostly of polyurea. The concentration and organization of these polyurea phases can have a significant impact on the properties of the polyurethane foam. Halocarbons and hydrocarbons are chosen such that they have boiling points at or near room temperature. Since the Polymerization which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, reaction is exothermic, these blowing agents volatilize into a gas during the reaction process. They fill and expand the cellular Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, matrix, creating a foam. It is important to know that the blowing gas does not create the cells of a foam. Rather, foam cells are a result of blowing gas diffusing into bubbles that are nucleated or stirred into the system at the time of mixing. In fact, high-density microcellular foams can be formed without the addition of blowing agents by mechanically frothing or nucleating the polyol component prior to use.
Surfactants are used to modify the characteristics of the Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, during the foaming process. They are used to emulsify the liquid components, regulate cell size, and stabilize the cell structure to prevent collapse and surface defects. Rigid foam surfactants are designed to produce very fine cells and a very high closed cell content. Flexible foam surfactants are designed to stabilize the reaction mass while at the same time maximizing open cell content to prevent the foam from shrinking. The need for surfactant can be affected by choice of isocyanate, polyol, component compatibility, system reactivity, process conditions and equipment, tooling, part shape, and shot weight.
Though the properties of the polyurethane are determined mainly by the choice of polyol, the diisocyanate exerts some influence, and must be suited to the application. The cure rate is influenced by the functional group reactivity and the number of functional isocyanate groups. The mechanical properties are influenced by the functionality and the molecular shape. The choice of diisocyanate also affects the stability of the polyurethane upon exposure to light. Polyurethanes made with aromatic diisocyanates yellow with exposure to light, whereas those made with aliphatic diisocyanates are stable.
Softer, elastic, and more flexible polyurethanes result when linear difunctional polyethylene glycol segments, commonly called polyether polyols, are used to create the urethane links. This strategy is used to make spandex elastomeric fibres and soft rubber parts, as well as foam rubber. More rigid products result if polyfunctional polyols are used, as these create a three-dimensional cross-linked structure which, again, can be in the form of a low-density foam.
An even more rigid foam can be made with the use of specialty trimerization catalysts which create cyclic structures within the foam matrix, giving a harder, more thermally stable structure, designated as polyisocyanurate foams. Such properties are desired in rigid foam products used in the construction sector.
Careful control of viscoelastic properties - by modifying the catalysts and polyols used -can lead to memory foam, which is much softer at skin temperature than at room temperature.
There are then two main foam variants: one in which most of the foam bubbles (cells) remain closed, and the gas remains trapped, the other being systems which have mostly open cells, resulting after a critical stage in the foam-making process (if cells did not form, or became open too soon, foam would not be created). This is a vitally important process: if the flexible foams have closed cells, their softness is severely compromised, they become pneumatic in feel, rather than soft; so, generally speaking, flexible foams are required to be open-celled.
The opposite is the case with most rigid foams. Here, retention of the cell gas is desired since this gas (especially the fluorocarbons referred to above) gives the foams their key characteristic: high thermal insulation performance.
A third foam variant, called microcellular foam, yields the tough elastomeric materials typically experienced in the coverings of car steering wheels and other interior automotive components.
Polyurethane products often are inaccurately called "urethanes", but must not be confused with urethane proper (ethyl carbamate), because polyurethanes neither contain nor are produced from ethyl carbamate.
For the manufacture of polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, two groups of at least bifunctional substances are needed as reactants; compounds with isocyanate groups, and compounds with active hydrogen atoms. The physical and chemical character, structure, and molecular size of these compounds influence the Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, reaction, as well as ease of processing and final physical properties of the finished polyurethane. In addition, additive such as catalysts, surfactants, blowing agents, cross linkers, flame retardants, light stabilizers, and fillers are used to control and modify the reaction process and performance characteristics of the Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®.
Isocyanates with two or more functional groups are required for the formation of polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. Volume wise, aromatic isocyanates account for the vast majority of global diisocyanate production. Aliphatic and cycloaliphatic isocyanates are also important building blocks for polyurethane materials, but in much smaller volumes. There are a number of reasons for this. First, the aromatically linked isocyanate group is much more reactive than the aliphatic one. Second, aromatic isocyanates are more economical to use. Aliphatic isocyanates are used only if special properties are required for the final product. For example, light stable coatings and elastomers can only be obtained with aliphatic isocyanates. Even within the same class of isocyanates, there is a significant difference in reactivity of the functional groups based on steric hindrance. In the case of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate, the isocyanate group in the para position to the methyl group is much more reactive than the isocyanate group in the ortho position.
The two most important commercial, aromatic isocyanates are toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI). TDI consists of a mixture of the 2,4- and 2,6-diisocyanatotoluene isomers. The most important product is TDI-80 (TD-80), consisting of 80% of the 2,4-isomer and 20% of the 2,6-isomer. This blend is used extensively in the manufacture of polyurethane flexible slabstock and moulded foam. TDI, and especially crude TDI and TDI/MDI blends can be used in rigid foam applications, but have been supplanted by Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, MDI. TDI-polyether and TDI-polyester pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are used in high performance coating and elastomer applications. Pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are available that have been vacuum stripped of TDI monomer, which greatly reduces their toxicity. Diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) has three isomers, 4,4'-MDI, 2,4'-MDI, and 2,2'-MDI, and is also Polymerized which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, to provide oligomers of functionality three and higher.
Only the 4,4'-MDI monomer is sold commercially as a single isomer . It is provided either as a frozen solid or flake, or in molten form, and is used to manufacture high performance pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. Monomer blends, consisting of approximately 50% of the 4,4'-isomer and 50% of the 2,4'-isomer, are liquid at room temperature and are used to manufacture pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, for polyurea spray elastomer applications . 4,4'-MDI blends containing MDI uretonimine, carbodiimide, and allophonate moieties are also liquid at room temperature, and are used in the manufacture of integral skin and microcellular foams. 4,4'-MDI-glycol pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, offer increased mechanical properties in the same applications, but are prone to freezing at temperatures below 20 °C. Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, MDI (PMDI) is used in rigid pour-in-place, spray foam, and moulded foam applications. Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®,ic MDI that contains a very high portion of high-functionality oligomers is used to manufacture polyurethane and polyisocyanurate rigid insulation boardstock. Modified PMDI, which contains high levels of MDI monomer, is used in the production of polyurethane flexible moulded and microcellular foams. The relative percentage of the 4,4'- and 2,4'- isomers is adjusted to change the reactivity and storage stability of the isocyanate blend, as well as the firmness and other physical properties of the finished goods. Other aromatic isocyanate include p-phenylene diisocyanate (PPDI), naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI), and o-tolidine diisocyanate (TODI).
The most important aliphatic and cycloaliphatic isocyanates are 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), 1-isocyanato-3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohexane (isophorone diisocyanate, IPDI), and 4,4'-diisocyanato dicyclohexylmethane (H12MDI or hydrogenated MDI). They are used to produce light stable, non-yellowing polyurethane coatings and elastomers. Because of their volatility and toxicity, aliphatic isocyanate monomers are converted into pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, biurets, dimers, and trimers for commercial use. HDI adducts are used extensively for weather and abrasion resistant coatings and lacquers. IPDI is used in the manufacture of coatings, elastomeric adhesives and sealants. H12MDI pre-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, are used to produce high performance coatings and elastomers with optical clarity and hydrolysis resistance. Other aliphatic isocyanates include cyclohexane diisocyanate (CHDI), tetramethylxylene diisocyanate (TMXDI), and 1,3-bis(isocyanatomethyl)cyclohexane (H6XDI).
Polyols are higher molecular weight materials manufactured from an initiator and monomeric building blocks. They are most easily classified as polyether polyols, which are made by the reaction of epoxides (oxiranes) with an active hydrogen containing starter compounds, or polyester polyols, which are made by the polycondensation of multifunctional carboxylic acids and hydroxyl compounds. They can be further classified according to their end use as flexible or rigid polyols, depending on the functionality of the initiator and their molecular weight. Taking into account functionality, flexible polyols have molecular weights from 2,000 to 10,000 (OH# from 18 to 56). Rigid polyols have molecular weights from 250 to 700 (OH# from 300 to 700). Polyols with molecular weights from 700 to 2,000 (OH# 60 to 280) are used to add stiffness or flexibility to base systems, as well as increase solubility of low molecular weight glycols in high molecular weight polyols.
Polyether polyols come in a wide variety of grades based on their end use, but are all constructed in a similar manner. Polyols for flexible applications use low functionality initiators such as dipropylene glycol (f=2), glycerine (f=3) or a sorbitol/water solution (f=2.75). Polyols for rigid applications use high functionality initiators such sucrose (f=8), sorbitol (f=6), toluenediamine (f=4), and Mannich bases (f=4). Propylene oxide is then added to the initiators until the desired molecular weight is achieved. Polyols extended with propylene oxide are terminated with secondary hydroxyl groups. In order to change the compatibility, rheological properties, and reactivity of a polyol, ethylene oxide is used as a co-reactant to create random or mixed block hetero-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. Polyols capped with ethylene oxide contain a high percentage of primary hydroxyl groups, which are more reactive than secondary hydroxyl groups. Because of their high viscosity (470 OH# sucrose polyol, 33 Pa•s at 25 °C), carbohydrate initiated polyols often use glycerine or diethylene glycol as a co-initiate in order to lower the viscosity to ease handling and processing (490 OH# sucrose-glycerine polyol, 5.5 Pa•s at 25 °C). Graft polyols (also called filled polyols or Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, polyols) contain finely dispersed styrene-acrylonitrile, acrylonitrile, or polyurea (PHD) Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, solids chemically grafted to a high molecular weight polyether backbone. They are used to increase the load-bearing properties of low-density high-resiliency (HR) foam, as well as add toughness to microcellular foams and cast elastomers. PHD polyols are also used to modify the combustion properties of HR flexible foam. Solids content ranges from 14% to 50%, with 22% and 43% being typical. Initiators such as ethylenediamine and triethanolamine are used to make low molecular weight rigid foam polyols that have built-in catalytic activity due to the presence of nitrogen atoms in the backbone. They are used to increase system reactivity and physical property build, and to reduce the friability of rigid foam moulded parts. A special class of polyether polyols, poly(tetramethylene ether) glycols are made by Polymerizing which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, tetrahydrofuran. They are used in high performance coating and elastomer applications.
Polyester polyols fall into two distinct categories according to composition and application. Conventional polyester polyols are based on virgin raw materials and are manufactured by the direct polyesterification of high-purity diacids and glycols, such as adipic acid and 1,4-butanediol. They are distinguished by the choice of monomers, molecular weight, and degree of branching. While costly and difficult to handle because of their high viscosity, they offer physical properties not obtainable with polyether polyols, including superior solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, abrasion, and cut resistance. Other polyester polyols are based on reclaimed raw materials. They are manufactured by transesterification (glycolysis) of recycled poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) or dimethylterephthalate (DMT) distillation bottoms with glycols such as diethylene glycol. These low molecular weight, aromatic polyester polyols are used in the manufacture of rigid foam, and bring low cost and excellent flammability characteristics to polyisocyanurate (PIR) boardstock and polyurethane spray foam insulation.
Many polyols are poly-dispersive materials, being blends of two or more polyols each of specific molecular weights, to give intermediate molecular weight materials. It is not unusual to find blends of polyether and polyester polyols, to give specific compromises in properties.

Specialty polyols include polycarbonate polyols, poly-caprolactone polyols, polybutadiene polyols, and polysulfide polyols. The materials are used in elastomer, sealant, and adhesive applications that require superior weather-proofing, and resistance to chemical and environmental attack. Natural oil polyols derived from castor oil and other vegetable oils are used to make elastomers, flexible bunstock, and flexible moulded foam. Co-Polymerizing which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chlorotrifluoroethylene or tetrafluoroethylene with vinyl ethers containing hydroxyalkyl vinyl ether produces fluorinated (FEVE) polyols. Two component fluorinated polyurethane prepared by reacting FEVE fluorinated polyols with polyisocyanate have been applied to make ambient cured paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. Since fluorinated polyurethanes contain high percentage of fluorine-carbon bond which is the strongest bond among all chemical bonds. Fluorinated polyurethanes have excellent resistance to UV, acids, alkali, salts, chemicals, solvent which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE® which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, weathering, corrosion, fugi and microbial attack. These have become the first choice for high performance coating/paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®.
Chain extenders (f=2) and cross linkers (f=3 or greater) are low molecular weight hydroxyl and amine terminated compounds that play an important role in the Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, morphology of polyurethane fibres, elastomers, adhesives, and certain integral skin and microcellular foams. The elastomeric properties of these materials are derived from the phase separation of the hard and soft co-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, segments of the Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, such that the urethane hard segment domains serve as cross-links between the amorphous polyether (or polyester) soft segment domains. This phase separation occurs because the mainly non-polar, low melting soft segments are incompatible with the polar, high melting hard segments. The soft segments, which are formed from high molecular weight polyols, are mobile and are normally present in coiled formation, while the hard segments, which are formed from the isocyanate and chain extenders, are stiff and immobile. Because the hard segments are covalently coupled to the soft segments, they inhibit plastic flow of the Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, chains, thus creating elastomeric resiliency. Upon mechanical deformation, a portion of the soft segments are stressed by uncoiling, and the hard segments become aligned in the stress direction. This reorientation of the hard segments and consequent powerful hydrogen bonding contributes to high tensile strength, elongation, and tear resistance values. The choice of chain extender also determines flexural, heat, and chemical resistance properties. The most important chain extenders are ethylene glycol, 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BDO or BDO), 1,6-hexanediol, cyclohexane dimethanol and hydroquinone bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ether (HQEE). All of these glycols form polyurethanes that phase separate well and form well defined hard segment domains, and are melt process-able. They are all suitable for thermoplastic polyurethanes with the exception of ethylene glycol, since its derived bis-phenyl urethane undergoes unfavourable degradation at high hard segment levels. Diethanolamine and triethanolamine are used in flex moulded foams to build firmness and add catalytic activity. Diethyltoluenediamine is used extensively in RIM, and in polyurethane and polyurea elastomer formulations.
Polyurethane catalysts can be classified into two broad categories, amine compounds and organometallic complexes. They can be further classified as to their specificity, balance, and relative power or efficiency. Traditional amine catalysts have been tertiary amines such as triethylenediamine (TEDA, also known as 1,4-diazabicyclo octane or DABCO, an Air Products' trade mark), dimethylcyclohexylamine (DMCHA), and dimethylethanolamine (DMEA). Tertiary amine catalysts are selected based on whether they drive the urethane (polyol+isocyanate, or gel) reaction, the urea (water+isocyanate, or blow) reaction, or the isocyanate trimerization reaction (e.g. using potassium; which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, acetate, to form isocyanurate ring structure). Since most tertiary amine catalysts will drive all three reactions to some extent, they are also selected based on how much they favour one reaction over another. For example, tetramethylbutanediamine (TMBDA) preferentially drives the gel reaction over the blow reaction. On the other hand, both pentamethyldipropylenetriamine and N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N,N-diisopropanolamine balance the blow and gel reactions, although the former is more potent than the later on a weight basis. 1,3,5-(tris(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-hexahydro-s-triazine is a trimerization catalyst that also strongly drives the blow reaction. Molecular structure gives some clue to the strength and selectivity of the catalyst. Blow catalysts generally have an ether linkage two carbons away from a tertiary nitrogen. Examples include bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)ether (also known as A-99, formerly a Union Carbide product), and N-ethylmorpholine. Strong gel catalysts contain alkyl-substituted nitrogens, such as triethylamine (TEA), 1,8-diazabicyclo undecene-7 (DBU), and pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA). Weaker gel catalysts contain ring-substituted nitrogens, such as benzyldimethylamine (BDMA). Trimerization catalysts contain the triazine structure, or are quaternary ammonium salts. Two trends have emerged since the late 1980s. The requirement to fill large, complex tooling with increasing production rates has led to the use of blocked catalysts to delay front end reactivity while maintaining back end cure. In the United States, acid- and quaternary ammonium salt-blocked TEDA and bis-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)ether are common blocked catalysts used in moulded flexible foam and microcellular integral skin foam applications. Increasing aesthetic and environmental awareness has led to the use of non-fugitive catalysts for vehicle interior and furnishing applications in order to reduce odour, fogging, and the staining of vinyl coverings. Catalysts that contain a hydroxyl group or an active amino hydrogen, such as N,N,N'-trimethyl-N'-hydroxyethyl-bis(aminoethyl)ether and N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine that react into the Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, matrix can replace traditional catalysts in these applications.
Organometallic compounds based on mercury, lead, tin (dibutyltin dilaurate), bismuth (bismuth octanoate), and zinc are used as polyurethane catalysts. Mercury carboxylates, such as phenylmercuric neodeconate, are particularly effective catalysts for polyurethane elastomer, coating and sealant applications, since they are very highly selective towards the polyol+isocyanate reaction. Mercury catalysts can be used at low levels to give systems a long pot life while still giving excellent back-end cure. Lead catalysts are used in highly reactive rigid spray foam insulation applications, since they maintain their potency in low temperature and high humidity conditions. Due to their toxicity and the necessity to dispose of mercury and lead catalysts and catalysed material as hazardous waste in the United States, formulators have been searching for suitable replacements. Since the 1990s, bismuth and zinc carboxylates have been used as alternatives but have shortcomings of their own. In elastomer applications, long pot life systems do not build green strength as fast as mercury catalysed systems. In spray foam applications, bismuth and zinc do not drive the front end fast enough in cold weather conditions and must be otherwise augmented to replace lead. Alkyl tin carboxylates, oxides and mercaptides oxides are used in all types of polyurethane applications. For example, dibutyltin dilaurate is a standard catalyst for polyurethane adhesives and sealants, dioctyltin mercaptide is used in microcellular elastomer applications, and dibutyltin oxide is used in polyurethane paint, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, and coating applications. Tin mercaptides are used in formulations that contain water, as tin carboxylates are susceptible to degradation from hydrolysis.
Surfactants are used to modify the characteristics of both foam and non-foam polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®. They take the form of polydimethylsiloxane-polyoxyalkylene block co-Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, silicone oils, nonylphenol ethoxylates, and other organic compounds. In foams, they are used to emulsify the liquid components, regulate cell size, and stabilize the cell structure to prevent collapse and sub-surface voids. In non-foam applications they are used as air release and anti-foaming agents, as wetting agents, and are used to eliminate surface defects such as pin holes, orange peel, and sink marks.
The main polyurethane producing reaction is between a diisocyanate (aromatic and aliphatic types are available) and a polyol, typically a polypropylene glycol or polyester polyol, in the presence of catalysts and materials for controlling the cell structure, (surfactants) in the case of foams. Polyurethane can be made in a variety of densities and hardnesses by varying the type of monomer(s) used and adding other substances to modify their characteristics, notably density, or enhance their performance. Other additives can be used to improve the fire performance, stability in difficult chemical environments and other properties of the polyurethane products.
Fully reacted polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is chemically inert. No exposure limits have been established by OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) or ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists). It is not regulated by OSHA for carcinogenicity. Polyurethane Polymer which can be used in paints, which can be mixed using the paint stirrer CYKLONE®, is a combustible solid and can be ignited if exposed to an open flame. Decomposition from fire can produce mainly carbon monoxide, and trace nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide. Firefighters should wear self-contained breathing apparatus in enclosed areas.
Liquid resin blends and isocyanates may contain hazardous or regulated components. They should be handled in accordance with manufacturer recommendations found on product labels, and in MSDS (Material Safety Data Sheet) and product technical literature. Isocyanates are known skin and respiratory sensitizers, and proper engineering controls should be in place to prevent exposure to isocyanate liquid and vapour. Proper hygiene controls and personal protective equipment (PPE), such as gloves, respirators, and protective clothing and eye wear should be used.
In the United States, additional health and safety information can be found through organizations such as the Polyurethane Manufacturers Association (PMA) and the Centre for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI), as well as from polyurethane system and raw material manufacturers. In Europe, health and safety information is available from ISOPA, the European Diisocyanate and Polyol Producers Association. Regulatory information can be found in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 21 (Food and Drugs) and Title 40 (Protection of the Environment).
The methods of manufacturing polyurethane finished goods range from small, hand pour piece-part operations to large, high-volume bunstock and boardstock production lines. Regardless of the end-product, the manufacturing principle is the same: to meter the liquid isocyanate and resin blend at a specified stoichiometric ratio, mix them together until a homogeneous blend is obtained, dispense the reacting liquid into a mould or on to a surface, wait until it cures, then demould the finished part.
Although the capital outlay can be high, it is desirable to use a meter-mix or dispense unit for even low-volume production operations that require a steady output of finished parts. Dispense equipment consists of material holding (day) tanks, metering pumps, a mix head, and a control unit. Often, a conditioning or heater-chiller unit is added to control material temperature in order to improve mix efficiency, cure rate, and to reduce process variability. Choice of dispense equipment components depends on shot size, throughput, material characteristics such as viscosity and filler content, and process control. Material day tanks may be single to hundreds of gallons in size, and may be supplied directly from drums, IBCs (intermediate bulk containers, such as totes), or bulk storage tanks. They may incorporate level sensors, conditioning jackets, and mixers. Pumps can be sized to meter in single grams per second up to hundreds of pounds per minute. They can be rotary, gear, or piston pumps, or can be especially hardened lance pumps to meter liquids containing highly abrasive fillers such as wollastonite, chopped or hammer milled glass fibres.
The pumps can drive low-pressure (10 to 30 bar, ~1 to 3 MPa) or high-pressure (125 to 250 bar, ~12.5 to 25.0 MPa) dispense systems. Mix heads can be simple static mix tubes, rotary element mixers, low-pressure dynamic mixers, or high-pressure hydraulically actuated direct impingement mixers. Control units may have basic on/off - dispense/stop switches, and analogue pressure and temperature gages, or may be computer controlled with flow meters to electronically calibrate mix ratio, digital temperature and level sensors, and a full suite of statistical process control software. Add-ons to dispense equipment include nucleation or gas injection units, and third or fourth stream capability for adding pigments or metering in supplemental additive packages.
Distinct from pour-in-place, bun and boardstock, and coating applications, the production of piece parts requires some type of tooling to contain and form the reacting liquid. The choice of mould-making material is dependent on the expected number of uses to end-of-life (EOL), moulding pressure, flexibility, and heat transfer characteristics. RTV silicone is used for tooling that has an EOL in the thousands of parts. It is typically used for moulding rigid foam parts, where the ability to stretch and peel the mould around undercuts is needed. The heat transfer characteristic of RTV silicone tooling is poor. High-performance, flexible polyurethane elastomers are also used in this way.
Epoxy, metal-filled epoxy, and metal-coated epoxy is used for tooling that has an EOL in the tens-of-thousands of parts. It is typically used for moulding flexible foam cushions and seating, integral skin and microcellular foam padding, and shallow-draft RIM bezels and fascia.

The heat transfer characteristic of epoxy tooling is fair; the heat transfer characteristic of metal-filled and metal-coated epoxy is good. Copper tubing can be incorporated into the body of the tool, allowing hot water to circulate and heat the mould surface. Aluminium is used for tooling that has an EOL in the hundreds-of-thousands of parts. It is typically used for moulding microcellular foam gaskets and cast elastomer parts, and is milled or extruded into shape. Mirror-finish stainless steel is used for tooling that imparts a glossy appearance to the finished part. The heat transfer characteristic of metal tooling is excellent. Finally, moulded or milled polypropylene is used to create low-volume tooling for moulded gasket applications. Instead of many expensive metal moulds, low-cost plastic tooling can be formed from a single metal master, which also allows greater design flexibility. The heat transfer characteristic of polypropylene tooling is poor, which must be taken into consideration during the formulation process.
Polyurethanes, especially those made using aromatic isocyanates, contain chromophores which interact with light. This is of particular interest in the area of polyurethane coatings, where light stability is a critical factor and is the main reason that aliphatic isocyanates are used in making polyurethane coatings. When PU foam, which is made using aromatic isocyanates, is exposed to visible light it discolours, turning from off-white to yellow to reddish brown. It has been generally accepted that apart from yellowing, visible light has little effect on foam properties. This is especially the case if the yellowing happens on the outer portions of a large foam, as the deterioration of properties in the outer portion has little effect on the overall bulk properties of the foam itself.
It has been reported that exposure to visible light can affect the variability of some physical property test results. Increasing exposure time and/or light intensity during the storage of foam samples under ambient laboratory conditions increased the amount of permanent set induced in some compression set tests (the samples did not fully return to their original size and/or shape). Variability resulted from uncontrolled light exposure of cut samples prior to being compressed. Other foam properties were not substantively affected. It was recommended that specimen preparation and testing be done rapidly to minimize variation in results or if specimens are prepared but not tested for a week or more, that the samples should be protected from light exposure.
That is why it is so important to mix any paint or DIY product thoroughly using a paint mixer or paint stirrer such as the highly recommended CYKLONE®.

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